Showing posts from 2006

Mock testing examples and resources

Mock testing is a very controversial topic in the area of unit testing. Some people swear by it, others swear at it. As always, the truth is somewhere in the middle. But first of all, let's ask Wikipedia about mock objects. Here's what it says:

"Mock objects are simulated objects that mimic the behavior of real objects in controlled ways. A computer programmer typically creates a mock object to test the behavior of some other object, in much the same way that an automobile designer uses a crash test dummy to test the behavior of an automobile during an accident."

This is interesting, because it talks about accidents, which in software development speak would be errors and exceptions. And indeed, I think one of the main uses of mock objects is to simulate errors and exceptions that would otherwise be very hard to reproduce.

Let's get some terminology clarified: when people say they use mock objects in their testing, in most cases they actually mean stubs, not mocks. …

Mind maps and testing

Jonathan Kohl, whose blog posts are always very insightful, writes about using mind maps to visualize software testing mnemonics (FCC CUTS VIDS; each letter represents an area of functionality within a product where testing efforts can be applied.) He finds that a mind map goes beyond the linearity of a list of mnemonics and gives testers a home base from which they can venture out into the product and explore/test new areas. Jonathan's findings match my experiences in using mind maps.

"The Problem with JUnit" article

Simon Peter Chappell posted a blog entry on "The Problem with JUnit". The title is a bit misleading, since Simon doesn't really have a problem with JUnit per se. His concern is that this tool/framework is so ubiquitous in the Java world, that people new to unit testing think that by simply using it, they're done, they're "agile", they're practicing TDD.

Simon's point is that JUnit is just a tool, and as such it cannot magically make you write good unit tests. This matches my experience: writing unit tests is hard. It's less important what tool or framework you use; what matters is that you cover as many scenarios as possible in your unit tests. What's more, unit tests are definitely necessary, but also definitely not sufficient for a sound testing strategy. You also need comprehensive automated functional and integration tests, and even (gasp) GUI tests. Just keep in mind Jason Huggins's FDA-approved testing pyramid.

Simon talks about …

Switched to Blogger Beta

I apologize if your RSS feed reader is suddenly swamped with posts from my blog. It's hopefully a one-time thing due to my having switched my blog to Blogger Beta.

Hungry for cheesecake?

If you are, search for "cheesecake" using Google Code Search. If you do, you'll get a unit test from the Cheesecake project as the very first result. Clearly, Google have their act together! :-)

"Scrum and XP From the Trenches" report

This just in via the InfoQ blog: a report (PDF) written by Henrik Kniberg with the intriguing title "Scrum and XP From the Trenches". Haven't read all of it yet, but the quote from the report included at the end of the InfoQ blog post caught my attention:

"I've probably given you the impression that we have testers in all Scrum teams, that we have a huge acceptance test team for each product, that we release after each sprint, etc., etc. Well, we don't. We've sometimes managed to do this stuff, and we've seen that it works when we do. But we are still far from an acceptable quality assurance process, and we still have a lot to learn there."

Testing is hard. But testing can also be fun!

"Performance Testing with JUnitPerf" article

Andrew Glover, who has been publishing a series of articles related to code quality on IBM developerWorks, talks about "Peformance Testing with JUnitPerf". The idea is to decorate your unit tests with timing constraints, so that they also become performance tests. If you want to do the same in Python, I happen to know about pyUnitPerf, the Python port of JUnitPerf. Here is a blog post/tutorial I wrote a while ago on pyUnitPerf.

PyCon news

I was very glad to see that the 3 proposals I submitted to PyCon07 were accepted: a "Testing Tools in Python" tutorial presented jointly with Titus, a "Testing Tools Panel" that I will moderate, and a talk on the Pybots project. The complete list of accepted talks and panels is here.

Here are the brief description and the outline for the Testing Tools tutorial that Titus and I will present. We will cover much more than just testing tools actually -- we'll talk about test and development techniques and strategies. It should be as good or better than the one we gave last year, which attracted a lot of people.

The Testing Tools Panel has a Wiki page. If you're interested in attending, please consider adding questions or topics of interest to you. If there is enough interest, I'm thinking about also organizing a BoF session on Testing Tools and Techniques, since the panel's duration will be only 45 minutes.

Finally, my Pybots talk will consist of an overvi…

Good Unix-related blog

Vladimir Melnikoff brought his blog to my attention: "Nothing but Unix". Good resource for Unix enthusiasts, mostly composed of industry-related news.

Python Fuzz Testing Tools

Ian Bicking suggested I create a new category in the Python Testing Tools Taxonomy: Fuzz Testing or Fuzzing. Done. If you're not familiar with the term, see the Wikipedia article which talks about this type of testing. Here's an excerpt: "The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data ("fuzz"). If the program fails (for example, by crashing, or by failing built-in code assertions), then there are defects to correct. The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple, and free of preconceptions about system behavior."

Ian told me about the Peach Fuzzer Framework.I was familiar with Pester (the home page talks about a Java tool called Jester, and it has links to the Python version called Pester); I also googled some more and found other Python fuzzing tools such as antiparser and Taof, which are both geared towards fuzzing network protocols. In fact, many fuzzing tools are used in security testing be…

"Swap space management" article at IBM developerWorks

From IBM developerWorks, a very nice summary of the issues involved in setting up and maintaining swap space on *nix systems: "Swap space management and tricks".

Daniel Read on software and Apgar scores

Daniel Read blogs on the topic: "Does software need an Apgar score?". He mentions the fact that a simple metric (the Apgar score for newborns) revolutionized the childbirth process, "through standardization of techniques, training, and regulation of who exactly was allowed to perform certain procedures (based on whether they had the training and experience)". He then talks about how a similar simple score might help the quality of software development, by assessing its "health". Hmmm... all this sounds strangely familiar to me -- Cheesecake anybody? Of course, Daniel accepts that this idea is highly controversial and maybe a bit simplistic. However, I for one am convinced that it would help with improving, if not the quality, then at least the kwalitee of the software packages we see in the wild today.

Got Edge?

I mean Edgy. I mean Edgy Eft. Get it.


I followed the EdgyUpgrades document from the Ubuntu Wiki and all it took to upgrade my Dell laptop from Dapper to Edgy was one command:

gksu "update-manager -c"
I call this painless. Everything seems to be working just fine after the upgrade. Haven't had time to play with it at all -- in fact, I don't even know how long the upgrade process took, since I left after I started it.

Proposal for Testing Tools Panel at PyCon07

Following Titus's example with his Web Frameworks Panel proposal for PyCon07, I proposed a Testing Tools Panel. And yes, I expect the author of twill to participate and take questions :-)

I created a TestingToolsPanel page on the PyCon07 wiki. Please feel free to add your own testing-related topics of interest and/or questions for the authors. If you are a testing tool author, please consider participating in the panel. You can leave a comment here or send me an email (grig at and let me know if you're interested in participating.

Here's what I have so far on the Wiki page:

I maintain a "Python Testing Tools Taxonomy" (PTTT) Wiki page.

Here are some of the tools listed on the PTTT page:
unit testing tools (unittest/doctest/py.test/nose/Testoob/testosterone)mock/stub testing tools (python-mock/pmock/stubble)Web testing tools (twill/webunit/zope.testbrowser/Pamie/paste.test.fixture)acceptance testing tools (PyFit/texttest/FitLoader)GUI testing tools (pyw…

"Agile in action" photostream

From a blog I read with pleasure, Simon Baker's "Agile in action", here's a link to a Flickr photostream that shows in my opinion what agile is all about: collaboration, camaraderie, short, having great fun and producing great software in the process. Stevey, I can tell you've never been part of an agile team in your life -- otherwise why would you be so bitter and cranky about it?

The 90-9-1 rule and building an open source community

Jakob Nielsen talks about the 90-9-1 rule in his latest Alertbox newsletter: "Participation inequality: encouraging more users to contribute". Simply put, the rule states that in a typical online community, 90% of the users are lurkers, 9% are occasional contributors, and only 1% are active contributors. This should be interesting for people trying to build and grow open source projects. Nielsen has some suggestions to offer on how to overcome this "participation inequality". Read the article for his suggestions.

Here are some of my own observations and lessons learned from various open source efforts I've been part of (many of them are things I've tried to do on the Pybots project):

How to build an open source community

* Blog, blog, blog
* Send messages to mailing lists related to the area of your project
* Write extensive documentation, make it easy for people to join
* Create a project repository (Google Code)
* Get help from early adopters, involve them…

Let's celebrate Roundup by turning it into the official Python bug tracker

Richard Jones just posted a note about Roundup turning 5. What better birthday gift than turning it into the official Python bug/issue tracker. Readers of Planet Python certainly know by now that there are 2 issue trackers in contention: JIRA and Roundup. Unless people step up to volunteer as admins for maintaining a Roundup-based Python issue tracker, the PSF will choose JIRA. I walked the walk and volunteered myself. I know there must be other people out there who would like to see a Python-based project be selected over a Java project. Any takers? Send an email by Oct. 16th to infrastructure at stating your intention to volunteer. All it takes is 8 to 10 people.

Pybots news

I'm happy to report that the Pybots project continues to gain momentum. In raw numbers, we have 8 buildslaves running the automated tests for 17 projects, and also testing the installation of 18 other packages. Pretty impressive, if I may say so myself. This table is copied from the main page and shows the current setup:

Builder nameProject(s) testedPre-requisites installedOwnerx86 Red Hat 9Twistedsetuptools, zope.interface, pycrypto, pyOpenSSLGrig Gheorghiux86 Debian Unstabledocutils, roundupN/ASeo Sanghyeonx86 Ubuntu DapperparsedatetimesetuptoolsMike Taylor (Bear)x86 OSXvobject, zanshinsetuptools, zope.interface, TwistedMike Taylor (Bear)x86 Gentoopysqlite, Genshi, Trac, feedvalidatorclearsilver, pysqliteManuzhaiamd64 Ubuntu DapperMySQLdb, CherryPyN/AElliot Murphyx86 Windows 2003lxml (dev, stable) Bazaar (dev, stable)libxml2, libxslt, zlib, iconvSidnei da Silvax86 Ubuntu BreezyCheesecakesetuptools, nose, logilab-astng, pylintGrig Gheorghiu
Some more projects and buildsl…

Notepad++ rocks

I heard about Notepad++ from Michael Carter, who showcased SQLAlchemy at our last SoCal Piggies meeting and used Notepad++ to edit his Python files. I downloaded it this week and all I can say is that it rocks! For Windows users, it's one of the best editors I've ever seen, and of course it's completely free. Notepad++ is based on the Scintilla editor, and it does syntax coloring for a gazillion languages (Python included of course), it includes a huge number of plugins, such as a Hex Editor, etc., etc. Highly recommended!

Buildbot used for continuous integration in the Gnome project

José Dapena Paz has a nice write-up on how the Gnome Build Brigade is using buildbot for continuous integration of all the projects under the Gnome umbrella. Buildbot scores again!

Any projects that need Pybots buildslaves?

Know of any projects that need Pybots buildslaves?

This is a question that's been asked twice already on the Pybots mailing list, or in emails addressed directly to me. Every time I answered that I don't really know any, and I advised the people asking the question to go through the list of their favorite Python projects, and pick some that they'd like to test. Or go through the list of major Web frameworks and pick some.

Anyway -- maybe a better way is to ask all the readers of this blog: do you have a project that you'd like to test in the Pybots buildbot farm, but maybe you don't have the hardware to run the buildslave on? Then let me know, or even better, let the Pybots mailing list know. There are people such as Jeff McNiel and Skip Montanaro who have hardware and resources, and are looking for projects to test.

BTW, the Pybots farm now has 6 buildslaves (the 6th was courtesy of Elliot Murphy, who contributed an AMD-64 Ubuntu Dapper box running the MySQLdb tests)…

Titus has a new blog

If you've been reading Titus's advogato blog, you'll be interested in knowing that he has a new blog: "Daily Life in an Ivory Basement". Will Guaraldi will be happy to know the blog is based on pyblosxom.

Pybots project keeps rolling

Some updates on the Pybots project:
Mike Taylor aka Bear from OSAF contributed 2 buildslaves: an Ubuntu Dapper box for testing his parsedatetime package, and an Intel Mac OSX box for testing two libraries used by OSAF -- vobject and zanshinManuzhai contributed a Gentoo box for testing pysqlite and TracElliot Murphy from will contribute an AMD-64 Ubuntu Dapper box for testing MySQLdbIn summary, we're up to 5 (soon to be 6) buildslaves, with more on the way
Seo Sanghyeon created a Google Code project for pybots; he and I are the current admins for this project; you can browse the Subversion repository for various scripts and buildbot config. filesAs a cool side note, Sanghyeon rewrote the home page for in reST; the page is kept in subversion and the server hosting is doing a svn update every hour, followed by a rest2html callAs I said in a previous post, the Pybots setup already proved its usefulness by uncovering issues with new keywords such as 'w…

Pay attention to the new 'with' and 'as' keywords

As of Sept. 6th (revision 51767), Python 2.6 has two new keywords: with and as. Python code that uses either one of these words as a variable name will be in trouble. How do I know that? Because the Twisted unit tests have been failing in the Twisted Pybots buildslave ever since. Actually the issue is not with Twisted code, but with zope.interface, which is one of the Twisted pre-requisites. Here's the offending code:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/tmp/Twisted/bin/trial", line 23, in
from twisted.scripts.trial import run
File "/tmp/Twisted/twisted/scripts/", line 10, in
from twisted.application import app
File "/tmp/Twisted/twisted/application/", line 10, in
from twisted.application import service
File "/tmp/Twisted/twisted/application/", line 20, in
from twisted.python import components
File "/tmp/Twisted/twisted/python/", line 37, in
from zope.interface.adapter import AdapterRegistry
File …

Pybots update

I'm happy to report that the Pybots project got its first user other than yours truly. Seo Sanghyeon set up a buildslave running on Debian Unstable which is running the docutils unit tests every time a checkin is made into Python trunk or in the 2.5-maint branch.

Marc-Andre Lemburg also offered to run a buildslave for the egenix-mx-base tests, while Manuzhai offered to run a buildslave for the Trac tests. Skip Montanaro also expressed interest in running a buildslave, but he hasn't decided on a project yet.

You can see the current pybots buildslaves here. Expect to see more active buildslaves in the next few days.

Marc-Andre suggested I write a Pybots FAQ and put some info on the Python wiki, so here they are:
Pybots page on Python wikiPybots FAQ on Python wiki

On the importance of functional testing

I did not need further proof of the fact that functional tests are a vital piece in a project's overall testing strategy. I got that proof anyway last night, while watching the Pybots buildmaster status page. I noticed that the Twisted unit tests were failing, but not because of errors within the Twisted package, but because pre-requisite packages such as ZopeInterface could not be installed anymore. If you followed my post on setting up a Pybots buildslave, you know that before running the Twisted unit tests, I attempt to instal ZopeInterface and other packages using the newly-built python binary, via "/tmp/python-buildbot/local/bin/python install".

Well, all of a sudden last night this last command was failing with errors such as:
error: invalid Python installation:
unable to open /tmp/python-buildbot/local/lib/python2.6/config/Makefile
(No such file or directory)

This proved to be was a transient error, due to some recent checkins that modified the release numbers…

QA blog at W3C

Karl Dubost sent me a message about some issues he had with running Cheescake on a Mac OS X machine. It turned out he was using an ancient version of Cheesecake, although he ran "easy_install Cheesecake". I told him to upgrade to the latest version via "easy_install Cheesecake==0.6" and his problems dissapeared.

Anyway, this is not what I was trying to blog about. Reading his email signature, I noticed he works as a Conformance Manager at W3C. Karl also mentions a QA blog at W3C in his signature. Very interesting blog, from the little I've seen so far. For example, from the "Meet the Unicorn" post, I found out about a W3C project (code-name Unicorn) which aims to be THE one tool to use when you want to check the quality -- i.e. the W3C conformance I suspect -- of web pages. This tool would "gather observations made on a single document by various validators and quality checkers, and summarize all of that neatly for the user." BTW, here is a l…

Setting up a Pybots buildslave

If you're interested in setting up a buildbot buildslave for the Pybots project, here are some instructions:

Step 1

Install buildbot on your machine. Instructions can be found here, here, here and here.

Step 2

Create a user that will run the buildbot slave process. Let's call it buildslave, with a home directory of /home/buildslave. Also create a /home/buildslave/pybot directory.

Step 3

Create the file buildbot.tac in /home/buildslave/pybot, with content similar to this:

from twisted.application import service
from import BuildSlave

# set your basedir appropriately
basedir = r'/home/buildslave/pybot'
host = ''
port = 9070
slavename = 'abc'
passwd = 'xyz'
keepalive = 600
usepty = 1

application = service.Application('buildslave')
s = BuildSlave(host, port, slavename, passwd, basedir, keepalive, usepty)

Step 4

Create a python-tool directory under /home/buildslave/pybots. You must name this directo…

Cheesecake case study: Cleaning up PyBlosxom

Will Guaraldi wrote an article on "Cleaning up PyBlosxom using Cheesecake". Cool stuff!

Will, I hope we meet at the next PyCon, I owe you a case of your favorite beer :-)

Pybots -- Python Community Buildbots

The idea behind the Pybots project (short for "Python Community Buildbots") is to allow people to run automated tests for their Python projects, while using Python binaries built from the very latest source code from the Python subversion repository.

The idea originated from Glyph, of Twisted fame. He sent out a message to the python-dev mailing list (thanks to John J. Lee for bringing this message to my attention), in which he said:

"I would like to propose, although I certainly don't have time to implement, a program by which Python-using projects could contribute buildslaves which would run their projects' tests with the latest Python trunk. This would provide two useful incentives: Python code would gain a reputation as generally well-tested (since there is a direct incentive to write tests for your project: get notified when core python changes might break it), and the core developers would have instant feedback when a "small" change breaks more co…

Dave Nicolette's recommended reading list on agile development

Worth perusing. I always enjoy Dave's blog posts on agile development, so I trust his taste :-)

Cheesecake 0.6 released

Thanks to Michał's hard work, we released Cheesecake 0.6 today. The easiest way to install it is via easy_install: sudo easy_install Cheesecake

Update: Please report bugs to the cheesecake-users mailing list.

Here's what you get if you run cheesecake_index on Cheesecake itself:

$ cheesecake_index -n cheesecake
py_pi_download ......................... 50 (downloaded package cheesecake-0.6.tar.gz directly from the Cheese Shop)
unpack ................................. 25 (package unpacked successfully)
unpack_dir ............................. 15 (unpack directory is cheesecake-0.6 as expected) ............................... 25 ( found)
install ................................ 50 (package installed in /tmp/cheesecakeNyfM4f/tmp_install_cheesecake-0.6)
generated_files ........................ 0 (0 .pyc and 0 .pyo files found)

A couple of Apache performance tips

I had to troubleshoot an Apache installation recently. Apache 2.0 was running on several Linux boxes behind a load balancer. If you ran top on each box, the CPU was mostly idle, there was plenty of memory available, and yet Apache seemed sluggish. Here are a couple of things I did to speed things up.

1. Disable RedirectMatch directives temporarily

All the Apache servers had directives such as:

RedirectMatch /abc/xyz/data

This was done so administrators who visited a special URL would be redirected to a special-purpose admin server. Since the servers were pretty much serving static pages, and they were under considerable load due to a special event, I disabled the RedirectMatch directives temporarily, for the duration of the event. Result? Apache was a lot faster.

2. Increase MaxClients and ServerLimit

This is a well-known Apache performance optimization tip. Its effect is to increase the number of httpd processes available to service the HTTP requests.


Porting to the Linux Standard Base

IBM developerWorks offers a tutorial (free registration required) on "Porting to the Linux Standard Base". Excerpt from the introduction:

"Because Linux® is an open operating system, you can configure and assemble it to suit specialized purposes. However, while variety and choice are beneficial for users, heterogeneity can vex software developers who must build and support packages on a multitude of similar but subtly different platforms. Fortunately, if an application conforms to the Linux Standard Base (LSB), and a flavor of Linux is LSB compliant, the application is guaranteed to run. Discover the LSB, and learn how to port your code to the standard."

Adhering to standards -- I'm all about that, although I've been called names before for showing enthusiasm for Python project layout standardization...Anyway, I'm glad to see the Linux community pushing the LSB, since this will benefit both distribution creators and application writers.

GK-H on "Myths, lies and truths about the Linux kernel"

"Myths, lies and truths about the Linux kernel" is the title of Greg Koah-Hartman's closing keynote at OLS 2006. Fascinating read, especially when Greg talks about the apparently chaotic Linux kernel development process, which turns out to be amazingly flexible and evolutionary. I was also impressed by the arguments for open-source drivers that are maintained and modified at the same time with the kernel -- this make a stable internal kernel API unnecessary, and allows the kernel to evolve.

Titus sent me the link to the keynote, and he also underlined this paragraph related to testing:

"Now, this is true, it would be great to have a simple set of tests that everyone could run for every release to ensure that nothing was broken and that everything's just right. But unfortunately, we don't have such a test suite just yet. The only set of real tests we have, is for everyone to run the kernel on their machines, and to let us know if it works for them."


Marick on refactoring

Brian Marick just posted his definition of refactoring: "A refactoring is a test-preserving transformation." It very succintly expresses the critical need for tests. If you don't have tests, how do you know refactoring preserves anything? Great stuff as usual from Brian M.


The fourth Cheesecake/SoC iteration has been completed -- code name emmental. Here are some stories that Michał implemented in this iteration:
Implement --static command line flag, which makes Cheesecake do only static tests, that don't execute any of package code. This is useful for example for the Cheesecake/PyPI integration, where we'll only look at 'static' indexes such as documentation and installability, as opposed to 'dynamic' indexes which involve code execution, such as unit test coverage;Make execution of some parts of code depending on "static" flag. Implement static "profile" - a subset of all indices that scores only statically.Technical detail related to this story: a nice touch from Michał was the implementation of index dependencies via this changeset
Implement --lite command line flag, which makes Cheesecake ignore time-consuming tests, such as the pylint test;Static unit test analysis (lots of work still to be done here);Use…

OpenWengo Code Camp

Found this via the buildbot-devel mailing list: OpenWengo Code Camp. It seems similar in philosophy and goals to the Google Summer of Code. Excerpt from the home page:
"OpenWengo Code Camp is a friendly, challenging and mind-stimulating contest aimed at pushing open source software projects forward.
Students apply for proposed software development subjects for which they have a particular interest in. These subject proposals describe ways to bring enhancements to existing or new FOSS projects, generally by writing source code. If their application is accepted, they get the chance to be mentored by open source software contributors to work during 2 months on the subject for which they applied. At the end of summer, mentors give their appreciation: if goals were successfully reached, students get 3500 euros of cash.Mentors get 500 euros of cash if they played their role which consist mainly in helping students to complete their work successfully and evaluating their work at intermed…


The 3rd milestone for the Cheesecake/SoC project has been completed -- code name devon. This iteration had 3 stories:

1. Create functional tests that actually execute cheesecake_index script. Check that Cheesecake is: properly cleaning up leaving log file when package is broken and is removing it otherwise computing score properly handling its command line options properly
2. Write script that will automatically download and score all packages from PyPI.Each package should have its score and complete Cheesecake output logged. Gather time statistics for each package. Make a summary after scoring all packages: number of packages for which Cheesecake raised an exception manually check first/last 10 packages and think about improving scoring techniques 3. Add support for egg packagesRefactor supported packages interface Add support for installing eggs via setuptools easy_install As far as story #2 is concerned, Michał and I discussed some modifications and tweaks we need to do to the scori…


The second week of the Cheesecake/SoC project has ended, and all the stories have been completed. We chose the name camembert for this iteration. It included some very tasty (or should I say tasteful) refactoring from Michał, who sprinkled some magic pixie dust in the form of metaclasses and __getitem__ wizardry. It also included some development environment-related tasks, all of them executed via buildbot: automatically generating epydoc documentation and publishing it, running coverage numbers and publishing them, and converting the reST-based README file into Trac Wiki format. This last task had as a side-effect the creation of a little tool that Michał called rest2trac, which will be made available in the near future. Currently it does the conversions that we need for the markup we use in the README file.

All in all, another productive week, and lots of good work from Michał. Check out his Mousebender blog for more information.

Xen installation and configuration

Courtesy of my co-worker Henry Wong, here's a guide on installing and configuring Xen on an RHEL4 machine.
IntroductionXen is a set of kernel extensions that allow for paravirtualization of operating systems that support these kernel extensions, allowing for near-native performance for the guest operating systems. These paravirtualized systems require a compatible kernel to be installed for it to be aware of the underlying Xen host. The Xen host itself needs to be modified in order to be able to host these systems. More information can be found at the Xen website. Sometime in the future, XenSource will release a stable version that supports the installation of unmodified guest machine on top of the Xen host. This itself requires that the host machine hardware have some sort of virtualization technology integrated into the processor. Both Intel and AMD have their own versions of virtualization technology, VT for short, to meet this new reqirement. To distinguish between the two comp…